Relationship between anthropometric nutritional status and functional capacity in older adults living in the community
PublisherRevista Medica de Chile
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Background: The functional fitness of older people may be associated with their nutritional status. Aim: To assess the association between of anthropometric measures with functional fitness in older people. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted in 75 participants aged 65 to 89 years. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), fat mass (FM) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) were calculated from anthropometric measures. The functional fitness was determined using the Senior Fitness Test battery. Results: BMI and FM indicated obesity, and WHtR indicated cardiometabolic risk in 49%, 55% and 83% of participants, respectively. SMI indicated a low muscle mass in 91% of females. Performance standards of chair stand, arm curl, 2-min step test and 8-foot up-and-go tests were met in 1%, 8%, 1% and 89% of participants, respectively. Significant negative correlations were found between 2-min step test and BMI, WHtR and FM (r = −0.26, −0.31 and −0.48 respectively). Back scratch had a negative correlation with BMI (r = −0.23) and SMI (rho = −0.28). Significant positive correlations were found between 8-foot up-and-go, WHtR (rho = 0.28) and FM (rho = 0.23), and between 2-min step test and SMI (rho = 0.28). The coefficient of determination (R2) between 2-min step test with BMI, WHtR and FM were 0.05, 0.08 and 0.22, respectively, while the R2 between back scratch and BMI was 0.04. Multiple regression models indicated that FM affected the 2-min step test independently of BMI and WHtR (adjusted R2 = 0.22), however age and sex negatively influenced these associations. Conclusions: Functional fitness of older adults is influenced by nutritional anthropometric measures, particularly BMI, WHtR and FM for aerobic capacity, and BMI for upper limb flexibility.