Historical and contemporary diversity of galaxiids in south america: biogeographic and phylogenetic perspectives
Vera Escalona, Iván
Delgado Aquije, Maria Lisette
DescriptionArtículo de publicación ISI
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Galaxiid fishes from South America are represented by three genera (Aplochiton, Brachygalaxias and Galaxias) and eight species. Their genetic patterns have been studied over the last two decades to disentangle how historical and contemporary processes influenced their biogeographic distribution and phylogeographic patterns. Here we review and synthesize this body of work. Phylogeographic approaches reveal the important role played by orogeny and the expansion/melting of glacial ice during the Quaternary. Populations retreated to glacial refugia during glacial times and some systems experienced drainage reversals from the Atlantic to the Pacific following deglaciation. Although most species expanded their populations and increased their genetic diversity during the Holocene, the introduction of salmonids and the construction of dams are likely to lead to a decline in genetic diversity for at least some species. An improvement in our understanding of the processes that influenced historical and contemporary diversity patterns among galaxiid and other native fishes in South America is necessary for addressing the cumulative and synergistic impacts of human activity on this unique freshwater fauna.