Optimization of Yield in Kinetically Controlled Synthesis of Ampicillin with Immobilized Penicillin Acylase in Organic Media
Aguirre Céspedes, Carolina
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Immobilized penicillin acylase is a moderately priced versatile enzyme, that is able to catalyze the synthesis of derived penicillins and cephalosporins from the corresponding β-lactam nuclei and proper side-chain precursors. Kinetically controlled synthesis is a better strategy when product yield is a key issue. Yield should increase at reduced water activity by depressing the competing hydrolytic reactions in favor of synthesis; therefore, organic cosolvents can be a suitable reaction media for synthesis. Using response surface methodology and product yield as objective function, temperature and pH were optimized in the kinetically controlled synthesis of ampicillin using previously screened cosolvents and reaction conditions. Optimum pH was 6.0 for ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol (GL) and 6.6 for 1-2 propanediol (PD); optimum temperature was 30°C for GL and for EG and PD was in the lower extreme of the range studied, optimum lying below 26°C. Maximum molar yields predicted by the model were 58, 51, and 46% for EG, GL, and PD, respectively, which were experimentally validated. Highest yield in aqueous buffer was always <40%. Molar yields about 60% compare favorably with values reported for the kinetically and thermodynamically controlled synthesis of ampicillin and other derived penicillins.